Azolla Cultivation Guide

Azolla is a free-floating aquatic fern that belongs to the family Azollaceae. It is commonly known as mosquito fern due to its ability to cover water surfaces and prevent mosquito breeding.

Importance of Azolla cultivation

Azolla cultivation is gaining popularity worldwide due to its potential as a sustainable source of food and energy. Azolla is rich in nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, and has nitrogen-fixing properties that make it an ideal biofertilizer.

History of Azolla cultivation

Origin of Azolla cultivation

Azolla cultivation can be traced back to ancient China, where it was used as a biofertilizer in rice fields. The Chinese also used Azolla as a feed for livestock.

Spread of Azolla cultivation

The cultivation of Azolla spread to other parts of Asia and Africa, where it was used to increase rice yields and as a source of animal feed. In recent years, Azolla cultivation has gained attention in other parts of the world due to its potential as a sustainable source of food and energy.

In India, Azolla farming has several benefits:

  1. Nitrogen Fixation: Azolla has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, which enriches the soil with this essential nutrient. When integrated into rice fields, it reduces the need for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, thereby promoting eco-friendly agriculture.
  2. Green Manure: Azolla can be incorporated as green manure in paddy fields. It improves soil structure, water-holding capacity, and nutrient content, leading to enhanced crop yields and reduced soil degradation.
  3. Livestock Feed: Azolla is protein-rich and suitable for feeding livestock, especially poultry and fish. It serves as a nutritious supplement, reducing the dependency on costly commercial feeds.
  4. Water Conservation: Azolla covers the water surface, reducing evaporation and preventing weed growth. This helps in conserving water, especially in regions with water scarcity.
  5. Weed Suppression: The dense growth of Azolla shades the water surface, inhibiting the growth of unwanted aquatic weeds.
  6. Carbon Sequestration: Azolla absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during growth, contributing to climate change mitigation.

Starting an Azolla farm in India involves the following steps:

  1. Selecting a Site: Choose a suitable location with access to water, preferably in ponds or tanks. Ensure adequate sunlight for Azolla growth.
  2. Preparing the Site: Clean the water body and remove any debris. Create shallow areas for Azolla to grow.
  3. Introducing Azolla: Obtain Azolla biomass from a reliable source. Introduce it into the water body and allow it to spread.
  4. Maintenance: Azolla requires minimal maintenance. Regularly monitor its growth and ensure that it covers the water surface adequately.
  5. Harvesting: Harvest Azolla by skimming the surface gently. It can be used as green manure, animal feed, or even for composting.
  6. Expansion: As Azolla multiplies quickly, you can expand your cultivation area or share excess biomass with other farmers.
  7. Training and Knowledge: Gain knowledge about Azolla farming through training programs, online resources, and local agricultural extension services.

Azolla’s Nutritional Composition

Carbohydrates and Proteins

Azolla contains high levels of carbohydrates and proteins, making it an excellent source of nutrition for both humans and animals. The protein content of Azolla can range from 15-35%, which is higher than most other plant-based sources of protein.

Vitamins and Minerals

Azolla is also a rich source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, B complex, C, E, and K, as well as calcium, iron, and zinc.

Environmental Benefits of Azolla Cultivation

Azolla’s Nitrogen-Fixing Properties

Azolla has the unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through its symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium called Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla an excellent biofertilizer and reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers that can harm the environment.

Azolla as a Bio-fertilizer

Azolla can be used as a biofertilizer in rice fields, where it can increase yields and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers. It can also be used as a biofertilizer for other crops such as corn, wheat, and soybeans.

Azolla as a Livestock Feed

Azolla can be used as a feed for livestock

due to its high protein content and palatability. It can be fed to cattle, pigs, poultry, and fish, and has been shown to improve animal growth rates and reduce the cost of animal feed.

Azolla Cultivation Techniques

Pond preparation

The first step in Azolla cultivation is to prepare a suitable pond. The pond should be shallow (less than 30 cm deep) and have a surface area of at least 10 square meters. The pond should be lined with plastic or clay to prevent seepage.

Seedling preparation

Azolla can be propagated vegetatively by dividing mature plants or by using spores. Spores are collected from mature plants and placed in a petri dish with water. The spores will germinate and form small green discs, which can be transferred to the pond.

Cultivation practices

Azolla can be cultivated using organic or inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers such as cow dung or poultry manure can be added to the pond to provide additional nutrients. Inorganic fertilizers such as urea or ammonium sulfate can also be used, but should be applied in small quantities to avoid over-fertilization.

Harvesting techniques

Azolla can be harvested once a week by skimming the surface of the pond with a net. The harvested Azolla can be drained and dried in the sun, or used fresh as animal feed or biofertilizer.

Applications of Azolla


Azolla can be used as a biofertilizer in rice fields, as well as other crops such as corn, wheat, and soybeans. It can also be used as a green manure, which is a plant that is grown and then plowed into the soil to improve soil fertility.


Azolla can be used as a feed for fish and shrimp, and has been shown to improve growth rates and reduce the cost of feed. It can also be used as a biofilter, which is a device that removes waste from water by using biological processes.

Pharmaceutical industry

Azolla has been shown to have potential as a source of natural bioactive compounds, which are compounds that have a positive effect on human health. These compounds can be used in the development of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and functional foods.


Azolla has the ability to absorb heavy metals and other pollutants from water, making it a potential tool for bioremediation. It can also be used to treat wastewater from industries such as textile and paper mills.

Challenges in Azolla Cultivation

Pest and disease management

Azolla is susceptible to pests such as snails and insects, which can reduce yields. Disease management is also important, as fungal and bacterial infections can affect plant growth.

Quality control

The quality of Azolla can be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, light, and nutrient levels. Quality control measures such as regular monitoring and testing are important to ensure that the Azolla produced is of high quality.

Market development

The market for Azolla products is still in its infancy, and there is a need for further research and development to increase consumer awareness and demand.

Yield and profit per Acre of Azolla Cultivation

Conversion Factors:


Average Price of Azolla at 20 rs Per KG Will give you turnover of 2,663,480Rs . Expect a profit of 50% per acre.


Summary of benefits of Azolla cultivation

Azolla cultivation has the potential to provide sustainable solutions to food and energy security. It is rich in nutrients, has nitrogen-fixing properties, and can be used as a feed for livestock and fish, as well as a biofertilizer and biofilter.

Potential of Azolla as a sustainable source of food and energy

As the world faces increasing challenges in food and energy security, Azolla cultivation offers a promising solution that is both environmentally friendly