Guar (Cluster Bean) Farming and Cultivation guide

Cluster bean, also known as Guar, is a widely cultivated crop in India. It is primarily grown for its seeds, which are used in various industries, including food, pharmaceuticals, and oil extraction. Guar cultivation has gained significant importance due to its economic value and adaptability to different agro-climatic conditions.

In India, Guar is mainly grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh. These areas provide favorable conditions for the crop, such as well-drained sandy loam soil, warm climate, and low to moderate rainfall.

The cultivation of Guar usually begins with the onset of the monsoon season, around June or July. Farmers prepare the land by plowing and harrowing, followed by the sowing of Guar seeds. The recommended seed rate is around 8 to 10 kilograms per hectare. The seeds are typically sown in rows or broadcasted evenly across the field.

Guar plants are known for their tolerance to drought conditions, making them suitable for cultivation in regions with limited water availability. However, they require sufficient moisture during critical growth stages, such as flowering and pod development. In areas with inadequate rainfall, supplemental irrigation is necessary to ensure optimal growth and yield.

The crop takes around 90 to 120 days to mature, depending on the variety and growing conditions. During the growth period, farmers need to monitor and manage pests, diseases, and weeds to prevent yield losses. Common pests that affect Guar cultivation include aphids, whiteflies, and pod borers. Farmers employ various pest management strategies, including the use of insecticides, biopesticides, and cultural practices.

Once the Guar pods turn brown and dry, they are ready for harvest. The harvesting process involves cutting the plants close to the ground and threshing the pods to separate the seeds. Farmers often use manual or mechanical threshers to remove the seeds from the pods.

After harvesting, the Guar seeds undergo further processing to extract Guar gum, a valuable industrial ingredient. Guar gum is extensively used in various applications, such as food processing, textile printing, paper manufacturing, and oil drilling.

The cultivation of Guar in India has provided a source of income for farmers and contributed to the country’s agricultural economy. It has also played a crucial role in meeting the domestic and international demand for Guar products.

  1. Suitable Climate: Cluster beans thrive in arid and semi-arid regions with warm weather. They are commonly cultivated in states like Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh in India. These regions offer the ideal conditions for cluster bean cultivation.
  2. Soil Requirements: Cluster beans prefer well-drained sandy loam soil. The soil should be loose and fertile to allow for good root development. It’s advisable to conduct a soil test before planting to determine the soil’s nutrient content and pH level.
  3. Sowing Time: The sowing of cluster beans usually takes place during the monsoon season, which typically starts around June or July. The timing may vary slightly depending on the specific region and prevailing weather conditions.
  4. Seed Rate and Planting: The recommended seed rate for cluster beans is around 8 to 10 kilograms per hectare. The seeds can be sown in rows or broadcasted evenly across the field. Proper spacing between the plants is essential for healthy growth and better yields.
  5. Irrigation: While cluster beans are known for their drought tolerance, they still require sufficient moisture for optimal growth. Adequate irrigation is crucial, especially during critical growth stages like flowering and pod development. Supplemental irrigation should be provided if rainfall is insufficient.
  6. Crop Care: Weeds can significantly impact cluster bean growth and yield. Timely weeding and cultivation are necessary to control weed infestation. Pests such as aphids, whiteflies, and pod borers can also affect the crop. Regular monitoring and appropriate pest management practices should be employed to minimize damage.
  7. Harvesting: Cluster beans are typically ready for harvest around 90 to 120 days after sowing, depending on the variety and growing conditions. Harvesting is done when the pods turn brown and dry. The plants are cut close to the ground, and the pods are threshed to separate the seeds.
  8. Post-Harvest Processing: After harvesting, the cluster bean seeds undergo further processing. The seeds are often used for the extraction of guar gum, a valuable industrial ingredient. Processing methods involve cleaning, dehusking, and grinding the seeds to obtain guar gum powder.

Crop Duration

The crop duration of cluster bean, also known as Guar, typically ranges from 90 to 120 days. This duration can vary depending on factors such as the specific variety of cluster bean, growing conditions, and management practices.

Cluster beans are usually sown at the beginning of the monsoon season, which is around June or July in many regions. The crop undergoes vegetative growth during the initial stages, followed by flowering and pod development. It takes approximately 60 to 80 days from sowing for the cluster beans to reach the flowering stage.

After flowering, the pods start to develop and gradually mature. The time it takes for the pods to ripen and become ready for harvest is usually around 30 to 40 days. Once the pods turn brown and dry, they are harvested, and the seeds are extracted.

It’s important to note that the crop duration can be influenced by various factors, including climate, soil conditions, irrigation, and pest management. Additionally, different varieties of cluster beans may have slight variations in their growth cycles. Therefore, it is advisable to consult local agricultural experts or reference materials specific to the variety being cultivated for more accurate information on the crop duration.

States with highest Guar Cultivation

  1. Rajasthan: Rajasthan is the leading state in cluster bean cultivation. The arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan provide favorable conditions for growing cluster beans, and it accounts for a significant portion of the total production in India.
  2. Gujarat: Gujarat is another major cluster bean cultivating state. The warm and dry climate of Gujarat, particularly in the districts of Kutch, Banaskantha, and Mehsana, supports the successful cultivation of cluster beans.
  3. Haryana: Cluster bean cultivation is widespread in Haryana, especially in districts like Hisar, Sirsa, and Fatehabad. The state’s favorable agro-climatic conditions make it suitable for growing this crop.
  4. Punjab: Punjab is also known for its cluster bean cultivation, primarily in districts such as Bhatinda, Ferozepur, and Muktsar. The state’s fertile soil and well-irrigated agricultural lands contribute to its production.
  5. Uttar Pradesh: Uttar Pradesh has a significant presence in cluster bean cultivation, particularly in the western districts such as Budaun, Bareilly, and Shahjahanpur. The state’s favorable climate and availability of suitable agricultural land make it conducive to growing cluster beans.

Yield Per acre of Cluster bean cultivation

The yield of cluster beans, also known as Guar, can vary depending on several factors such as agro-climatic conditions, cultivation practices, variety, and management techniques. On average, the yield of cluster beans per acre can range from 800 to 1,200 kilograms.

To achieve optimal yield, farmers employ various agricultural practices such as proper seed selection, timely sowing, appropriate spacing between plants, adequate irrigation, and nutrient management. Additionally, effective pest and disease control measures are crucial to prevent yield losses.

It’s important to note that the yield can vary from region to region and from one farming system to another. Some farmers may achieve higher yields through advanced farming techniques, while others may have lower yields due to suboptimal conditions or inadequate agricultural practices.

Varieties of Cluster beans in india

  1. Pusa Navbahar: It is a high-yielding variety developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI). Pusa Navbahar is known for its early maturity and good pod quality.
  2. Pusa Sadabahar: Another variety developed by IARI, Pusa Sadabahar is known for its extended flowering period and prolonged pod development. It is suitable for both rainfed and irrigated conditions.
  3. Pusa Sawani: This variety is known for its dwarf and compact growth habit, making it suitable for high-density planting. Pusa Sawani has good pod yield potential and is resistant to some common pests and diseases.
  4. Pusa Mausam: It is a variety developed by IARI that is known for its good heat tolerance. Pusa Mausam performs well in hot and dry regions, making it suitable for arid and semi-arid conditions.
  5. RGC 936: This variety is known for its high gum yield and good pod quality. RGC 936 is popular among farmers engaged in guar gum production due to its superior gum content.
  6. Hissar Safed: It is a local variety from Haryana, known for its white seeds and good pod yield. Hissar Safed performs well in the semi-arid regions of North India.

Seed Requirement per Acre

The seed requirement for cluster bean, also known as Guar, can vary depending on factors such as seed size, germination rate, and planting density. Generally, the recommended seed rate for cluster bean cultivation is around 8 to 10 kilograms per acre.

It’s important to note that the seed requirement may vary based on various factors, including the specific variety of cluster bean, planting method (direct seeding or transplanting), and spacing between plants. It is advisable to consult local agricultural experts or seed suppliers who can provide more specific and accurate recommendations based on the specific conditions and practices in your region. They can consider factors such as local soil types, climate, and yield goals to determine the most suitable seed rate for cluster bean cultivation in your area.

Profit per hectare (Rough Figure only)

DescriptionAmount (in Rs.)
Cost of Seeds1,000
Land Preparation2,000
Irrigation3,000
Fertilizers and Manure5,000
Pesticides and Crop Protection2,000
Labor and Miscellaneous5,000
Total Expenses18,000
Cost per kilogram3.60
Estimated Yield5,000 kg
Total Revenue1,00,000
Profit82,000

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