Mulberry cultivation – Moriculture in India

Mulberry cultivation, also known as moriculture, plays a crucial role in India’s silk industry. The process of growing mulberry trees and harvesting their leaves to feed silk-producing silkworms is a key step in silk production. In this article, we will explore the various aspects of mulberry cultivation in India, including its significance, cultivation practices, and benefits. So, let’s dive in and discover the world of moriculture!

1. Introduction to Mulberry Cultivation

Mulberry cultivation refers to the practice of growing mulberry trees specifically for their leaves, which are the primary food source for silkworms. The leaves of the mulberry tree are rich in nutrients and provide the necessary sustenance for silkworms to spin their cocoons and produce silk. Mulberry cultivation has a long history in India, dating back centuries.

2. Significance of Mulberry in Silk Production

Mulberry leaves are highly nutritious and contain essential proteins, vitamins, and minerals required for the growth and development of silkworms. The quality of silk produced by silkworms largely depends on the quality of mulberry leaves they consume. Therefore, the availability of high-quality mulberry leaves is vital for the success of the silk industry.

3. Climate and Soil Requirements

Mulberry trees thrive in tropical and subtropical regions with a moderate climate. They require well-drained soil with good organic content. The ideal temperature range for mulberry cultivation is between 25°C and 35°C. Mulberry trees are also adaptable to various soil types, including loamy, sandy, and clayey soils.

4. Varieties of Mulberry Trees

Several varieties of mulberry trees are cultivated in India for their leaves. Some popular varieties include S-36, S-54, M-5, V-1, and BC-2. Each variety has its unique characteristics and suitability to different regions and climatic conditions. The selection of the appropriate variety depends on factors such as climate, soil type, and intended purpose.

5. Propagation Techniques

Mulberry trees can be propagated through various techniques such as seeds, stem cuttings, and grafting. Seeds are commonly used for large-scale plantations, while stem cuttings are preferred for small-scale cultivation. Grafting techniques are employed to maintain desirable traits and characteristics of specific varieties.

6. Planting and Spacing

The ideal time for planting mulberry trees is during the monsoon season when there is adequate rainfall. The spacing between the trees depends on the variety and intended use. For leaf production, a spacing of 6 feet by 6 feet is generally recommended to allow proper growth and development of the trees.

7. Mulberry Orchard Management

Proper orchard management practices are essential for maximizing mulberry leaf production. This includes regular irrigation, weeding, and maintenance of the orchard. Mulching around the base of the trees helps retain moisture and suppress weed growth. Regular monitoring of pests and diseases is also crucial for maintaining the health of the trees.

8. Irrigation and Fertilization

Mulberry trees require regular watering, especially during the dry season, to ensure healthy growth. Drip irrigation systems are commonly used for efficient water management. Fertilizers rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are applied to promote vigorous growth and enhance leaf production.

9. Pruning and Training

Pruning plays a vital role in shaping the mulberry trees and maintaining their productivity. It helps remove dead or diseased branches, improve air circulation, and control the height of the trees. Proper training techniques ensure a well-structured canopy, facilitating easy harvesting and management.

10. Pest and Disease Control

Mulberry trees are susceptible to various pests and diseases, including mites, scale insects, leaf-eating caterpillars, and fungal infections. Regular inspection and timely application of appropriate insecticides and fungicides help control and prevent infestations. Organic and integrated pest management practices are also gaining popularity in mulberry cultivation.

11. Harvesting Mulberry Leaves

Mulberry leaves are harvested when they reach optimal maturity, typically around 45 days after planting. The leaves are plucked by hand or using specialized tools, ensuring careful handling to avoid damage. Continuous harvesting can be done by selectively picking mature leaves, allowing the tree to regrow and sustain a regular supply.

12. Silkworm Rearing Process

The harvested mulberry leaves serve as the primary food for silkworms during their larval stage. Silkworm rearing involves carefully controlling environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and lighting. The silkworms undergo a series of molting stages before spinning their cocoons, which are made of silk threads.

13. Silk Extraction

After the silkworms complete their cocoon formation, the silk extraction process begins. The cocoons are harvested and subjected to a process called reeling, where the silk threads are carefully unwound. The unwound silk threads are then spun together to form silk yarn, which is used for various purposes, including textile production.

14. Economic Importance of Moriculture

Moriculture holds immense economic importance in India. The silk industry provides employment opportunities to a significant number of people, particularly in rural areas. It contributes to export earnings and foreign exchange reserves, boosting the country’s economy. The cultivation of mulberry trees also aids in environmental conservation and sustainable agriculture practices.

15. Conclusion

Mulberry cultivation, or moriculture, is an integral part of India’s silk industry. The practice of growing mulberry trees and harvesting their leaves to feed silkworms is essential for silk production. By understanding the significance of mulberry in silk production, the suitable climate and soil conditions, propagation techniques, orchard management, and other aspects of moriculture, we can appreciate the intricate process involved in producing this valuable natural fiber.


1. What is the importance of mulberry in silk production?

Mulberry leaves are essential for silkworms as they provide the necessary nutrition for their growth and silk production.

2. What are the suitable climatic conditions for mulberry cultivation?

Mulberry trees thrive in tropical and subtropical regions with a moderate climate, preferably with temperatures between 25°C and 35°C.

3. How are mulberry trees propagated?

Mulberry trees can be propagated through various methods such as seeds, stem cuttings, and grafting.

4. What are the common pests and diseases affecting mulberry trees?

Mulberry trees are susceptible to pests like mites, scale insects, and caterpillars, as well as fungal infections. Regular monitoring and appropriate control measures are necessary.

5. How does moriculture contribute to the economy?

Moriculture provides employment opportunities, contributes to export earnings, and supports sustainable agriculture practices, making it economically significant.