Parwal / Kundru / Pointed Gourd farming in india

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is a popular vegetable in India, which is cultivated extensively in various parts of the country. The vegetable is also known by other regional names such as ‘Potol’ in Bengali, ‘Thondekai’ in Kannada, ‘Paraval’ in Marathi, and ‘Chhachhundar’ in Hindi. The vegetable has a cylindrical shape and is green in color with white stripes. It has a crunchy texture and a slightly bitter taste. In this article, we will discuss in detail about the Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd farming in India.

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is a tropical vegetable crop that belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. It is a climbing vine that grows up to a height of 5-6 meters. The vegetable is characterized by its elongated and pointed shape and has a waxy surface.

History of Kundru

Farming in India Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd has been cultivated in India for centuries. The vegetable is believed to have originated in India and then spread to other parts of the world. It is a popular vegetable in Indian cuisine and is used in various dishes such as curries, stir-fries, and pickles.

Importance of Pointed Gourd in Indian Cuisine

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is an important ingredient in Indian cuisine, especially in the northern and eastern regions of the country. It is used in a variety of dishes and is valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. The vegetable is a good source of dietary fiber, vitamin C, and minerals such as calcium and iron. It is also believed to have several health benefits, such as aiding in digestion, boosting the immune system, and regulating blood sugar levels.

Local Names

  1. Hindi: Parwal, Parval
  2. Bengali: Potol, Patal
  3. Marathi: Parwal, Parval
  4. Gujarati: Parval, Padwal
  5. Tamil: Kadaikkai
  6. Telugu: Potlakaya
  7. Kannada: Padavalakayi
  8. Malayalam: Padavalanga
  9. Punjabi: Parwal
  10. Urdu: Parwal

Climate and Soil Requirements

Ideal Climate

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is a warm-season crop that requires a warm and humid climate for optimal growth. The ideal temperature range for the crop is 25-35°C, and it requires a minimum of 6-8 hours of sunlight per day. The crop is sensitive to frost and cannot tolerate temperatures below 10°C.

Soil Requirements

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd grows well in well-drained soils that are rich in organic matter. The soil pH should be between 6.0 and 6.5. The crop requires good soil fertility and regular application of organic manure to promote growth and yield.

Soil Preparation

The soil should be prepared by plowing and harrowing to a depth of 25-30 cm to create a fine tilth. The field should be leveled and ridges should be made at a distance of 1.5-2 meters apart. Organic manure should be added to the soil before planting.

Varieties of Parwal

Common Varieties

There are several varieties of Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd that are grown in India, such as ‘Pusa Barsati’, ‘Pusa Naveen’, ‘Pusa Sadabahar’, and ‘Arka Kesar’. These varieties differ in their growth habits, yield potential, and fruit quality.

Characteristics of Different Varieties

The ‘Pusa Barsati’ variety is an early-maturing variety that is suitable for growing in areas with a short growing season. The ‘Pusa Naveen’ variety is a high-yielding variety that produces long and straight fruits. The ‘Pusa Sadabahar’ variety is a disease-resistant variety that is suitable for growing in humid areas. The ‘Arka Kesar’ variety is a high-yielding variety that produces round and attractive fruits.

Suitable Varieties for Different Regions

The choice of variety for Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd farming depends on the climatic and soil conditions of the region. The ‘Pusa Naveen’ and ‘Pusa Sadabahar’ varieties are suitable for growing in the eastern and northeastern regions of India, while the ‘Arka Kesar’ variety is suitable for growing in the southern and western regions of the country.

Propagation and Planting

Seed Collection and Treatment

The seeds of Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd should be collected from healthy and disease-free plants. The seeds should be treated with a fungicide to prevent seed-borne diseases.

Seed Sowing

The seeds should be sown in seedbeds or nursery beds, and the seedlings should be transplanted to the main field after 25-30 days. The seeds should be sown at a depth of 2-3 cm and at a distance of 10-15 cm between them. The seedlings should be watered regularly to maintain adequate moisture levels in the soil.

Planting in the Main Field

The seedlings should be transplanted to the main field after 25-30 days, when they have developed 3-4 leaves. The plants should be spaced at a distance of 2-3 feet between rows and 1-2 feet between plants. The plants should be provided with support structures such as trellises or stakes to ensure that they grow straight.

Crop Management

Irrigation

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd requires regular irrigation to maintain adequate moisture levels in the soil. The crop should be irrigated once every 5-7 days during the vegetative stage and once every 3-4 days during the flowering and fruiting stages.

Fertilization

The crop requires regular fertilization to promote growth and yield. Organic manure such as cow dung or compost should be applied to the soil at the time of planting, and additional doses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers should be applied during the vegetative and flowering stages.

Weed Management

Weeds should be controlled by regular hoeing and weeding. The use of herbicides should be avoided, as they can damage the crop.

Pest and Disease Management

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is susceptible to several pests and diseases, such as fruit flies, powdery mildew, and mosaic virus. The crop should be regularly monitored for pest and disease infestations, and appropriate control measures such as the use of insecticides or fungicides should be employed if necessary.

Harvesting and Post-Harvest Management

Harvesting

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd should be harvested when the fruits are tender and immature, usually 50-60 days after transplanting. The fruits should be harvested by hand, using a sharp knife or scissors.

Post-Harvest Management

The harvested fruits should be washed and sorted to remove any damaged or diseased fruits. The fruits can be stored for up to 2-3 days in a cool and dry place. Alternatively, they can be sold fresh in the local market or processed into pickles or chutneys.

Profit and expense of Parval cultivation in one acre land

ExpensesAmount per Acre (INR)
Land preparation₹30,000
Seeds₹12,000
Fertilizers₹18,000
Pesticides₹9,000
Irrigation₹15,000
Labor₹60,000
Equipment and machinery₹24,000
Miscellaneous expenses₹12,000
Total Expenses₹1,80,000

Selling price variation and Profits based on varied price

Selling Price (per kg)Expenses (INR)Harvested Pointed Gourds (kg)Total Revenue (INR)Profit (INR)
₹20₹1,80,00010,000₹2,00,000₹20,000
₹40₹1,80,00010,000₹4,00,000₹2,20,000
₹80₹1,80,00010,000₹8,00,000₹6,20,000

The Above calculation is based on the assumption that you harvest a total of 10,000 KG per acre.

Limitations and Challenges faced by farmers

  1. Regional Preference: Pointed gourd is more popular and in higher demand in certain regions of India, particularly in North and East India, compared to other parts of the country. The market demand for pointed gourd may vary based on regional culinary preferences and traditional recipes.
  2. Seasonal Availability: Pointed gourd is primarily a seasonal vegetable, and its availability is limited to specific times of the year. This seasonality can affect the consistent supply and demand of pointed gourd in the market. Farmers need to carefully plan and time their cultivation to align with market demands.
  3. Competition from Other Vegetables: Pointed gourd faces competition from other vegetables in the market, such as bottle gourd, bitter gourd, and various leafy greens. The availability of alternative vegetables may affect the market demand for pointed gourd, as consumers have various choices based on their preferences and dietary habits.
  4. Perishability and Shelf Life: Pointed gourd is a perishable vegetable and has a relatively shorter shelf life compared to some other vegetables. This limits its storage and transportation capabilities, making it important for farmers to have proper post-harvest management strategies to maintain quality and minimize losses.
  5. Market Price Fluctuations: The market price of pointed gourd can be subject to fluctuations influenced by factors such as seasonal supply, demand, transportation costs, and market competition. Farmers need to closely monitor market trends and adjust their cultivation and pricing strategies accordingly.
  6. Lack of Processing and Value Addition: Pointed gourd is primarily consumed fresh or used in traditional recipes. The lack of extensive processing or value addition options for pointed gourd limits its marketability in terms of packaged or value-added products. Exploring innovative processing techniques and diversifying product offerings may help enhance market opportunities.
  7. Export Potential: While there is a domestic market for pointed gourd in India, its export potential may be limited due to factors such as perishability, transportation costs, and specific import regulations of target countries. Farmers interested in exporting pointed gourd need to thoroughly assess these factors and comply with international standards and regulations.

Conclusion

Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd is an important vegetable crop in India, valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties as well as its culinary uses. The crop can be grown in a variety of climatic and soil conditions, and the choice of variety and management practices should be tailored to the specific needs of the region. With proper management, Parwal/Kundru/Pointed Gourd farming can be a profitable venture for farmers in India.

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