Peaches , The addu / aaru Fruit Cultivation in india

Peaches are a popular and delicious fruit with a soft, fuzzy skin and a sweet, juicy flesh. They are widely cultivated in many parts of the world and are known for their nutritional and medicinal properties. B. History of Peach cultivation in India Peach cultivation has a long history in India, with evidence of its cultivation dating back to the Mughal period. However, it was only in the late 20th century that commercial cultivation of peaches began in India.

Geographical Distribution and Climatic Requirements

Soil requirements

Peaches require well-drained soils with good fertility and a pH range of 6.0 to 6.5. They do well in loamy, sandy loam, and clay loam soils.

Temperature requirements

Peaches are temperate fruits and require a chilling period of 600 to 1200 hours at temperatures below 7°C to break their dormancy. They also require warm temperatures during the growing season, with a range of 18°C to 30°C.

Rainfall requirements

Peaches require moderate rainfall, with an average of 750 mm to 1000 mm per year. They are sensitive to waterlogging and require good drainage.

Varieties of Peaches in India

Popular varieties of peaches grown in India include Florida prince, Shan-e-Punjab, and Sharbati.

Areas of Cultivation

  1. Himachal Pradesh: The state of Himachal Pradesh, particularly regions like Shimla, Kullu, and Kinnaur, is known for its peach cultivation. The cool climate and high-altitude areas provide the necessary chilling hours for successful peach production.
  2. Uttarakhand: Similar to Himachal Pradesh, certain areas of Uttarakhand, including places like Nainital and Ranikhet, offer suitable conditions for growing peaches.
  3. Jammu and Kashmir: The temperate climate of Kashmir Valley allows for the cultivation of peaches in areas like Srinagar and surrounding regions.
  4. Arunachal Pradesh: Some parts of Arunachal Pradesh, such as Tawang and Bomdila, have the right climate for peach cultivation due to their high elevations.
  5. Meghalaya: The cooler regions of Meghalaya, including places like Shillong, provide conditions conducive to growing peaches.
  6. Sikkim: Sikkim, with its diverse microclimates, has certain areas suitable for peach cultivation, especially in higher elevations.
  7. Uttar Pradesh: Some parts of Uttar Pradesh, such as the hilly areas of the Kumaon region, have conditions that support peach farming.
  8. West Bengal: Certain cooler areas of West Bengal, like the Darjeeling district, have the potential for peach cultivation.
  9. Hilly Regions in Northeast India: Overall, hilly and high-altitude regions across various states in the northeastern part of India offer suitable conditions for peach cultivation.

Cultivation Practices

Propagation

Peaches are propagated through budding or grafting onto rootstocks. The most common rootstocks used in India are Lovell, Nemaguard, and Flordaguard.

Planting

Peaches are planted during the winter season, from November to February, in pits of size 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1.5 m. The pits are filled with a mixture of topsoil, farmyard manure, and sand.

Training and pruning

Peach trees are trained into a central leader system with a height of 3-3.5 m. They require regular pruning to maintain their shape and improve fruit quality. The pruning should be done during the dormant season, and the aim is to remove dead, diseased, and weak wood, as well as to open up the canopy to allow light penetration and air circulation.

Irrigation and Fertilization

Peaches require regular and timely irrigation, especially during the fruiting season. Drip irrigation is the preferred method, as it ensures efficient water use and reduces waterlogging. Fertilization is also important for peach cultivation, and a balanced fertilizer regimen should be followed to ensure good growth and fruit quality.

Pest and Disease Control

Peaches are susceptible to a range of pests and diseases, including aphids, thrips, mites, and fruit fly. Regular monitoring and use of appropriate pesticides and insecticides are necessary to prevent and control infestations.

Harvesting and Post-harvest Management

Maturity Standards

Peaches are harvested when they are ripe and ready to eat. The maturity standards for peaches include fruit size, skin color, and fruit firmness. The fruits should have good color, be firm but not hard, and detach easily from the tree when picked.

Harvesting techniques

Peaches are handpicked to avoid damage to the fruit. The fruits should be handled carefully to prevent bruising and injury. The fruits should be harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon to avoid high temperatures.

Storage and packaging

Peaches are perishable and should be handled carefully during storage and transportation. They should be stored in a cool and dry place, with good air circulation. They can be packed in wooden crates, cartons, or plastic bags, and should be transported in refrigerated trucks.

Yield Per acre

The yield of one acre peach cultivation can vary depending on a number of factors such as climate, soil type, cultivar, and management practices. On average, a well-managed peach orchard in India can yield around 10 to 15 tonnes per acre. However, this can vary significantly depending on the region and cultivation practices. It is important to note that yield alone is not the only measure of success for peach cultivation, as fruit quality and market demand are also important factors to consider. With proper management and market-oriented cultivation practices, peach cultivation can be a profitable and sustainable venture for farmers.

Cost of Cultivation, Expenses and Profit per acre

Cost and ExpensesAmount (Rs.)
Land Preparation30,000
Plant Material (400 plants @ Rs.50 each)20,000
Fertilizers and Soil Amendments20,000
Irrigation Equipment10,000
Pesticides and Insecticides20,000
Labor Expenses (pruning, thinning, harvesting)50,000
Miscellaneous Expenses10,000
Total Cost and Expenses1,60,000
Yield and Market PricesAmount
Yield per acre10 tonnes
Market price per kgRs. 50/kg
Profit per AcreAmount (Rs.)
Total RevenueRs. 5,00,000
Total Cost and ExpensesRs. 1,60,000
Net ProfitRs. 3,40,000

Economic Importance of Peaches

Nutritional Value

Peaches are a rich source of vitamins A and C, potassium, and fiber. They also contain antioxidants and other phytochemicals that have health benefits.

Medicinal properties

Peaches have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer properties. They are also used in cosmetics and skincare products for their moisturizing and anti-aging effects.

Market demand and prices

Peaches are in high demand in the Indian market, and the prices vary depending on the quality and seasonality. The export market for Indian peaches is also growing, with countries like Dubai, Oman, and Bahrain being the major importers.

Conclusion

Peach cultivation in India has come a long way, with significant progress made in recent years in terms of variety development, cultivation practices, and market demand. The Addu and Aadu varieties are popular among farmers and consumers alike, and the economic importance of peaches in India is on the rise. With proper cultivation practices and pest management, peach cultivation in India can be a lucrative and sustainable venture for farmers.

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