Prawn Farming in india

Prawn farming, also known as shrimp farming, has emerged as a profitable venture in India’s aquaculture industry. With its vast coastline and favorable climatic conditions, India offers a conducive environment for the cultivation of prawns. This article aims to provide an in-depth overview of prawn farming in India, covering various aspects such as farming techniques, potential benefits, market opportunities, and sustainability.

1. Overview of Prawn Farming

Prawn farming involves the cultivation of prawns in artificially created ponds or tanks. It is a highly profitable business that has gained popularity due to the increasing demand for prawns both domestically and internationally. India, with its abundant natural resources, has become a major player in prawn farming.

2. Selecting the Right Species for Farming

There are several species of prawns suitable for farming in India, including the Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Each species has its own requirements and market value. Farmers must consider factors such as water salinity, temperature, and market demand when choosing the species for their farm.

3. Setting Up a Prawn Farm

To establish a successful prawn farm, certain factors need to be considered. These include land availability, water source, topography, infrastructure, and legal requirements. Proper planning and layout design of the farm are crucial for efficient production.

4. Pond Preparation and Management

Pond preparation involves clearing the land, ensuring proper soil quality, and constructing ponds of suitable size and shape. The management of ponds includes water quality monitoring, regular cleaning, and maintenance of optimum temperature and salinity levels.

5. Prawn Seed Selection and Stocking

Selecting healthy and disease-free prawn seeds is essential for a successful farming operation. Farmers should source seeds from reliable hatcheries and conduct proper quarantine measures before stocking them in the ponds. Stocking density and size of prawns play a crucial role in achieving optimal growth.

6. Water Quality and Aeration

Maintaining good water quality is vital for prawn health and growth. Proper aeration techniques, such as the use of paddlewheels or aerators, help maintain dissolved oxygen levels and prevent stagnant water conditions.

7. Feeding and Nutrition

Prawns require a balanced diet for optimal growth. Feed management practices should be implemented, considering the nutritional requirements at different stages of growth. Both natural and formulated feeds can be used, depending on the availability and cost-effectiveness.

8. Disease Management in Prawn Farming

Prawn farming is susceptible to various diseases and infections. Regular health monitoring, maintaining proper water quality, and implementing biosecurity measures are crucial to prevent disease outbreaks. Quarantine protocols and the use of probiotics can also help boost the immunity of prawns.

9. Harvesting and Processing

Prawns are typically harvested when they reach the desired size, which varies based on market demand. Harvesting techniques include the use of nets or traps. Proper handling and transportation are essential to maintain the quality of prawns. Processing techniques such as grading, cleaning, and packaging ensure that the prawns meet the market standards.

10. Marketing and Export Potential

India has a strong domestic market for prawns, with increasing demand due to changing food habits and rising disposable incomes. Additionally, the export potential of Indian prawns is significant, with countries like the United States, European Union, and Japan being major importers. Building strong marketing networks and adhering to quality standards are crucial for tapping into these markets.

11. Environmental Sustainability in Prawn Farming

Sustainable practices in prawn farming are gaining importance to minimize the environmental impact. Measures such as recycling water, using organic fertilizers, and adopting eco-friendly feed options contribute to sustainable farming practices. Proper waste management and prevention of water pollution are also essential for the long-term viability of the industry.

12. Government Policies and Support

The Indian government has implemented several policies and schemes to promote and support prawn farming. These include financial assistance, infrastructure development, training programs, and research and development initiatives. Farmers can benefit from these incentives and stay updated with the latest regulations.

13. Challenges and Risks

Prawn farming faces various challenges and risks, including disease outbreaks, market fluctuations, and adverse weather conditions. Farmers need to stay informed about the latest farming practices, invest in quality infrastructure, and maintain good market connections to mitigate these risks.

14. Success Stories in Prawn Farming

Several individuals and organizations have achieved remarkable success in prawn farming. These success stories serve as inspiration for aspiring farmers and provide valuable insights into best practices, innovation, and market strategies.

15. Conclusion

Prawn farming in India offers immense potential for entrepreneurs in the aquaculture sector. With careful planning, efficient management, and adherence to sustainable practices, farmers can capitalize on the growing demand for prawns both domestically and internationally. By staying updated with market trends, leveraging government support, and embracing innovative techniques, prawn farming can become a lucrative and rewarding venture.


Can prawn farming be done in landlocked states of India?

Prawn farming is primarily practiced in coastal regions due to the availability of saline water. However, with technological advancements, inland prawn farming is also being explored in landlocked states using alternative methods such as recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS).

What are the main diseases that affect prawn farming?

Common diseases in prawn farming include white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), and bacterial infections like Vibrio spp. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and proper management practices help mitigate these diseases.

What is the typical harvesting period for prawns?

The harvesting period for prawns varies depending on the species, growth rate, and market demand. It can range from four to six months for Indian white prawns and up to nine months for giant tiger prawns.

Are there any organic alternatives for prawn feed?

Yes, organic alternatives for prawn feed are available, including formulations based on plant proteins, fish meal substitutes, and natural feed sources. These options contribute to sustainable farming practices and cater to the increasing demand for organic products.

How can I access further information on prawn farming in India?

For more detailed information on prawn farming in India, including specific guidelines, market insights, and training opportunities, you can visit the official websites of agricultural departments, aquaculture research institutes, and fisheries development boards.