Red Sandalwood Farming in India

Red sandalwood, also known as Pterocarpus santalinus, is a valuable tree species native to India. It is highly sought after for its vibrant red-colored wood, which is used in various industries, including furniture making, carving, and medicine production. Red sandalwood farming has gained significant popularity in recent years due to its economic potential and the increasing demand for this precious timber. This article will delve into the intricacies of red sandalwood farming in India, covering various aspects such as cultivation practices, market opportunities, and potential challenges.

Understanding Red Sandalwood

Historical Significance

Red sandalwood has a rich cultural and historical significance in India. It has been used for centuries in traditional rituals, Ayurvedic medicine, and religious ceremonies. The wood is believed to possess medicinal properties and is highly valued for its aesthetic appeal.

Botanical Features

Red sandalwood is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 30 meters in height. It has a straight trunk and a dense canopy of compound leaves. The heartwood of the tree is the most valuable part, prized for its deep red color and durability.

Cultivation Practices

Selecting Suitable Land

Red sandalwood thrives in warm and tropical climates. It requires well-drained soil with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5. The land should have good sunlight exposure and protection from strong winds.

Seed Selection and Germination

High-quality seeds should be selected from reliable sources. The seeds can be soaked in water for 24 hours before sowing. Germination takes around 20 to 30 days, and the seedlings can be transplanted when they reach a height of 15 to 20 centimeters.

Planting Techniques

Pit digging is the most common method for planting red sandalwood saplings. The pits should be approximately 45 centimeters wide and 45 centimeters deep. Spacing between plants should be around 4 to 5 meters to allow for proper growth.

Irrigation and Water Management

Red sandalwood requires regular irrigation, especially during the dry season. Drip irrigation or sprinkler systems are recommended to provide controlled and efficient water supply. Over-watering should be avoided to prevent root rot.

Nutrient Requirements

Appropriate nutrient management is crucial for the healthy growth of red sandalwood. Organic manure, such as well-decomposed farmyard manure, should be applied during planting. Regular soil testing can help determine the need for additional fertilizers.

Pest and Disease Management

Red sandalwood is relatively resistant to pests and diseases. However, occasional infestations of termites, mealybugs, and leaf-eating caterpillars may occur. Organic pest control methods, such as neem oil sprays, can be used to mitigate these issues.

Red Sandalwood Market

Domestic and International Demand

The demand for red sandalwood has been consistently increasing in both domestic and international markets. In India, it is primarily used for making high-end furniture, sculptures, and handicrafts. The global market, especially in countries like China, Japan, and the United States, also values red sandalwood for its aesthetic and medicinal properties.

Value-Added Products

Apart from the raw timber, red sandalwood offers opportunities for value addition. The wood can be used to produce essential oils, perfumes, incense sticks, and herbal products. These value-added products have a higher profit margin and cater to niche markets.

Export Potential

India has significant export potential for red sandalwood and its products. However, it is essential to comply with international trade regulations and obtain the necessary certifications. Establishing strong trade networks and collaborating with international buyers can help tap into the global market.

Government Initiatives and Regulations

Subsidies and Financial Assistance

The government of India, recognizing the potential of red sandalwood farming, provides various subsidies and financial assistance to farmers. These include support for land preparation, seedlings, irrigation systems, and marketing initiatives. Farmers can benefit from these programs to establish and expand their red sandalwood plantations.

Licensing and Legal Considerations

Due to the high demand and limited supply, red sandalwood is protected under strict regulations. Farmers must obtain the necessary licenses and permits to engage in cultivation and trade. Illegal activities related to red sandalwood can lead to severe penalties and legal consequences.

Challenges and Risks

Long Gestation Period

Red sandalwood has a long gestation period, typically ranging from 10 to 15 years. Farmers need to have patience and long-term investment plans to realize the economic benefits of their plantations.

Illegal Logging and Smuggling

The high value of red sandalwood has led to illegal logging and smuggling activities. Strict enforcement of regulations and increased vigilance are necessary to combat these illegal practices.

Market Fluctuations

The market for red sandalwood is subject to fluctuations in demand and price. Economic factors, changing consumer preferences, and international trade dynamics can impact the profitability of red sandalwood farming. Farmers need to stay informed and adapt to market changes.

Success Stories and Case Studies

Several farmers in India have achieved remarkable success in red sandalwood farming. Their experiences and achievements serve as inspiration and guidance for aspiring farmers. Through dedication, proper cultivation practices, and market awareness, these farmers have established profitable red sandalwood plantations.

Areas of Cultivation

  1. Andhra Pradesh: This state is known as the primary hub for red sandalwood farming in India. Regions such as Kadapa, Chittoor, and Kurnool have conducive climatic conditions for its growth.
  2. Telangana: Certain districts in Telangana, including Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, and Rangareddy, are suitable for red sandalwood cultivation. The state government has also introduced supportive policies to encourage farmers in this region.
  3. Tamil Nadu: The districts of Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, and Dharmapuri in Tamil Nadu offer favorable conditions for red sandalwood cultivation. The state’s warm and tropical climate supports the growth of this valuable tree species.
  4. Karnataka: Some regions in Karnataka, particularly the districts of Chamarajanagar, Mysore, and Hassan, have proven to be suitable for red sandalwood farming. The state’s favorable climatic conditions contribute to its successful cultivation.
  5. Kerala: Certain parts of Kerala, such as Palakkad and Thrissur, provide suitable conditions for red sandalwood cultivation. The state’s tropical climate and well-drained soil support the growth of this valuable tree species.
  6. Odisha: Red sandalwood cultivation has gained momentum in some regions of Odisha, including Koraput, Rayagada, and Ganjam. The state’s favorable agro-climatic conditions make it a potential area for cultivation.
  7. Maharashtra: In Maharashtra, regions like Yavatmal, Chandrapur, and Nagpur show promise for red sandalwood cultivation. The state’s warm climate and suitable soil conditions create favorable growing conditions.
  8. Gujarat: Certain districts in Gujarat, including Sabarkantha, Banaskantha, and Dahod, have shown potential for red sandalwood cultivation. The state’s climate and soil characteristics support the growth of this tree species.


Red sandalwood farming presents a lucrative opportunity for farmers in India. With its high market demand, value-added product potential, and government support, this sector holds promise for sustainable economic growth. However, farmers should be prepared to overcome challenges such as long gestation periods, market fluctuations, and regulatory compliance. By adopting the right cultivation practices, staying informed, and leveraging market opportunities, red sandalwood farming can yield significant returns.


Q1: Can red sandalwood be grown in all parts of India?

Yes, red sandalwood can be cultivated in various parts of India, especially in regions with warm and tropical climates.

Q2: How long does it take for red sandalwood trees to mature?

Red sandalwood trees have a gestation period of approximately 10 to 15 years before they can be harvested for their valuable wood.

Q3: Is red sandalwood farming profitable?

Red sandalwood farming has the potential to be highly profitable, given the increasing demand for its timber and value-added products. However, it requires long-term investment and patience due to the long gestation period.

Q4: Are there any government subsidies available for red sandalwood farming?

Yes, the government of India provides subsidies and financial assistance for red sandalwood farming, including support for land preparation, seedlings, irrigation systems, and marketing initiatives.

Q5: Can red sandalwood be exported?

Yes, red sandalwood and its value-added products have significant export potential. However, farmers must comply with international trade regulations and obtain the necessary certifications.