Sahiwal Cattle

Sahiwal cattle is one of the most popular dairy breeds in India. It is a tropical breed known for its high milk yield and disease-resistant qualities. Sahiwal cattle has played a significant role in India’s agriculture and rural livelihoods for centuries. In this article, we will discuss the physical characteristics, milk and meat production, disease resistance, economic significance, breeding and management, and conservation of Sahiwal cattle in India.

Physical Characteristics of Sahiwal Cattle

Sahiwal cattle are medium-sized animals with a moderate temperament. They have a well-proportioned body with a long, deep, and broad chest. Sahiwal cows weigh between 400-500 kg, while bulls weigh between 700-900 kg. The skin of Sahiwal cattle is loose and pliable with a light red to reddish-brown color. The coat is short, glossy, and smooth. Sahiwal cattle have large, curving horns that are generally light in color.

Physical Characteristics of a Sahiwal Cow: Appearance and Anatomy

Sahiwal cows are a medium-to-large-sized breed, with a distinctive hump on their shoulders and a loose dewlap. Here are some of the physical characteristics of a Sahiwal cow:

  1. Body Size: Sahiwal cows are medium-to-large-sized, with an average height of 4.5 to 5 feet at the shoulder. They are also long-bodied, with an average length of 6 to 7 feet from head to tail.
  2. Coat Color: Sahiwal cows have a reddish-brown coat color, with shades ranging from light to dark. They also have a white face, ears, and legs.
  3. Hump: The hump on the Sahiwal cow’s shoulders is a distinctive physical feature, which is made up of fatty tissues. The hump provides energy to the cow during times of food scarcity and serves as a cooling mechanism during hot weather.
  4. Dewlap: Sahiwal cows have a loose dewlap, which is a fold of skin that hangs from their necks. The dewlap helps the cow to dissipate heat and regulate body temperature.
  5. Horns: Sahiwal cows have small to medium-sized horns, which are curved and point upwards. The horns are used for defense and to establish social hierarchy among the herd.
  6. Anatomy: Sahiwal cows have a four-chambered stomach, which allows them to digest fibrous plant material efficiently. They also have a complex network of blood vessels in their noses, which helps regulate body temperature and conserve water.

Sahiwal Cattle: Milk Production

Sahiwal cattle is known for its high milk yield. On average, Sahiwal cows produce between 1600-2500 kg of milk per lactation period, with a butterfat content of 4-5%. Sahiwal milk is rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals, making it highly nutritious. Sahiwal cattle’s milk is comparable to that of other Indian dairy breeds like Gir, Red Sindhi, and Tharparkar.

Benefits of Sahiwal Milk: Why It’s Considered a Superfood

Sahiwal cattle are known for their high milk production, which is not only rich in taste but also packed with numerous health benefits. Here are some of the benefits of Sahiwal milk:

  1. High Nutritional Value: Sahiwal milk is rich in nutrients, including calcium, protein, vitamins, and minerals. It is a great source of energy, and regular consumption of Sahiwal milk can help maintain overall health and wellness.
  2. Boosts Immune System: Sahiwal milk is known to boost the immune system, which can help fight against various diseases and infections. It is rich in immunoglobulin, which helps prevent and treat various diseases.
  3. Promotes Digestive Health: Sahiwal milk contains natural probiotics that help maintain the balance of good bacteria in the gut. It also has anti-inflammatory properties that can soothe the digestive system, preventing various digestive disorders.
  4. Helps in Weight Loss: Sahiwal milk is low in calories and high in protein, making it an ideal drink for weight loss. The protein in Sahiwal milk helps keep you full for longer, reducing the urge to snack on unhealthy foods.
  5. Promotes Bone Health: Sahiwal milk is a rich source of calcium, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. Regular consumption of Sahiwal milk can help prevent osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders.
  6. Improves Skin Health: Sahiwal milk is rich in antioxidants, which help prevent skin damage caused by free radicals. It also contains lactic acid, which acts as a natural exfoliant, helping to remove dead skin cells and promote new cell growth.

Sahiwal Cattle: Meat Production

Sahiwal cattle is also known for its high-quality meat. Sahiwal cows yield between 250-300 kg of meat, while bulls yield between 450-500 kg. Sahiwal meat is lean, tender, and flavorful, with a low-fat content. The meat is rich in protein, iron, and other essential nutrients. Sahiwal meat is preferred by consumers over other Indian beef breeds like Hariana and Kankrej.

Sahiwal Cattle: Health and Disease Resistance

Sahiwal cattle is highly resistant to tropical diseases like tick fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. They are also well-adapted to the hot and humid climate of India. Sahiwal cattle’s disease resistance and adaptability make them suitable for extensive grazing systems. Sahiwal cattle’s other health characteristics include early maturity, good reproductive performance, and longevity.

Sahiwal Cattle: Economic Significance

Sahiwal cattle is of significant economic importance in India. Sahiwal cattle’s high milk and meat yields contribute significantly to India’s dairy and beef industry. The market value of Sahiwal cattle is higher than other Indian breeds, making them a valuable asset for farmers. Sahiwal cattle also plays a vital role in the livelihoods of rural communities. They are used for plowing, transportation, and as a source of income for small-scale farmers.

Sahiwal Cattle: Breeding and Management

Breeding programs for Sahiwal cattle have been established to improve the breed’s genetic potential. These programs aim to increase milk and meat production while maintaining disease resistance and adaptability. Management practices for Sahiwal cattle include proper nutrition, health care, and housing. Technology has also been employed to improve Sahiwal cattle breeding and management, such as artificial insemination, embryo transfer, and genomic selection.

Sahiwal Cattle: Conservation

Sahiwal cattle’s population is declining due to crossbreeding with exotic breeds and neglect of indigenous breeds. Conservation efforts have been initiated to protect Sahiwal cattle’s genetic diversity and ensure their sustainable use. These efforts include establishing conservation centers, developing breed standards, and promoting Sahiwal cattle for their economic and cultural value.


Sahiwal cattle is a valuable breed in India, known for its high milk and meat yields, disease resistance, and adaptability. They play a significant role in India’s agriculture and rural livelihoods. Sahiwal cattle’s conservation is vital to maintain the breed’s genetic diversity and ensure their sustainable use for future generations. By promoting Sahiwal cattle for their economic and cultural value, we can preserve this valuable breed and contribute to India’s agricultural development.