Banana Cultivation & Profit in India

Banana is an important fruit crop cultivation in india. India Produces 29780000 Metric tonnes of Banana Per year (2010) in an area of 830000 hectares. It is the largest producer of bananas and produces as many bananas china & philippines combined, which comes in the next 2 positions. The production of bananas has steadily increased and as per apeda, the exports to countries has also improved.


The Major states which produce Banana is Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat , Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Other states include, Kerala , Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh , Bihar, West Bengal and assam.

Some of the Commercial Varieties grown in India include Grand Naine, Robusta, Dwarf Cavendish , Red banana and Nendran. There is no particular harvesting season in most states

Bananas are exported to the most middle eastern countries from india. Major importers include UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iran , Kuwait, Bahrain, Nepal, Qatar, Oman and Maldives 

Soil Preparation for Banana Plantation

Suitable Soil For Banana Plantation

Not Suitable 

Banana Can Grow in almost all soil types with varied success rate. For best results, Sandy loam soil with a PH of 6 and 7.5 is required. Preparation of the soil includes planting nitrogen fixation plants like Dainga or cow pea and tilling the land when the plant flowers. This improves aeration and provides natural matter to the soil. The soil should be well drained but humid. Always test your soil to find the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash content in your soil. High Nitrogen and potash levels are recommended. You may also want to check the alkaline and acidic levels in your soil. If your soil is too acidic add lime to soil to balance it and do necessary adjustments if soil is too alkaline. 

If the soil is saline, its not recommended for banana cultivation. Soil which is too black, not well drained or too sandy is also not the best kind of soil to grow bananas. Correction of soil could be expensive and you may want to reconsider banana plantation if the soil preparation is time consuming or not feasible.

Field Preparation for Banana

Preparation of Saplings and Suckers

Planting Systems

Spacing and Varieties

VarietiesSpacingPlants per HectarePlants Per acre
CO11.8 X 3.646001840
Udhayam1.8 X 3.646001840
Grand Naine1.5X1.544401785
BRS11.8 X 3.646001840
BRS21.8 X 3.646001840
FIHA 013X21667666
Rasthali / Amruthapani2.1X2.12267907
Dwarf Cavendish / Morris1.5X1.544401785
Ney Mannan2.1X2.12267907
Ney Poovan2.1X2.12267907
Red Banana / Chenkadhali / Kappa Vazha2.1X2.12267907
Sanna Chenkathali1.8 X 3.646001840
Matti1.8 X 3.646001840
Namarai1.8 X 3.646001840
Safed Velchi2.1X2.12267907
Najangud Bale1.8X31850740
Chandra Bale2.1X2.12267907

Seasons to plant banana and Irrigation

Bananas can be planted year round but should be avoided if the weather is below 10 degrees. In India, most farmers prefer to plant bananas during June-July or September-October. In rain fed areas like Kerala, September october is the preferred season where waterlogging can be minimised during the infant stages of the plant. This also ensures that there is no root rotting in banana plants. Proper irrigation is mandatory for plants in all seasons. Water logging should be avoided and drip irrigation is mandatory for dry areas. The soil should be moist at all times and 20 litres of water is required per adult plant. 

Most farmers in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka use drip irrigation to provide year round water facility to the plants. 3-5 ratoon crops are normal in most banana farms with right management and irrigation. 

Tips for Better Production of Bananas

Advantages of Tissue Culture 

disadvantages of Sucker plantation

Though Tissue culture plants are most suitable for commercial purposes, there are various reasons why farmers don’t prefer tissue culture. The availability of many tissue culture plants are limited. Some are not available at all. This forces farmers to use suckers. While the cost of suckers and tissue culture plants are the same in most cases, the yield is higher in Tissue culture plants. Yet due to unavailability of the right variety, 70% farmers still use suckers to plant bananas commercially

Areas of Banana Cultivation in India

Tamil Nadu: Tamil Nadu is one of the leading banana-producing states in India. The districts of Tiruchirapalli, Theni, Erode, and Coimbatore are known for their extensive banana cultivation.

Maharashtra: The regions of Jalgaon, Pune, and Nashik in Maharashtra have significant banana cultivation.

Andhra Pradesh: The districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, and Krishna are major banana-producing areas in Andhra Pradesh.

Gujarat: The state of Gujarat, especially the regions of Bharuch, Valsad, and Surat, has a considerable banana cultivation.

Karnataka: Karnataka is also a significant producer of bananas, with the districts of Belgaum, Hassan, and Tumkur being major banana-growing areas.

Kerala: The state of Kerala has substantial banana cultivation, particularly in the districts of Thrissur, Kozhikode, and Malappuram.

Uttar Pradesh: The state of Uttar Pradesh has several regions with extensive banana cultivation, such as Gorakhpur and Deoria.

West Bengal: The regions of Bankura, Purulia, and Malda are notable for banana cultivation in West Bengal.

Bihar: In Bihar, the districts of Vaishali, Muzaffarpur, and Samastipur are known for banana cultivation.

Odisha: The state of Odisha also has areas of banana cultivation, with Koraput, Mayurbhanj, and Balasore being some of the significant regions.

Average Cost per Acre of Banana Cultivation:

Total Average Cost: ₹130,000 – ₹200,000 per acre

Average Profit per Acre of Banana Cultivation: Profit margins can vary significantly based on factors like yield, market prices, and local conditions. On average, the profit per acre for banana cultivation can range from ₹80,000 to ₹150,000 per acre.

Average Expense per Acre of Banana Cultivation: This includes the total cost minus the profit, and it can be estimated as follows: Average Expense = Total Average Cost – Average Profit Average Expense = ₹130,000 – ₹200,000 – ₹80,000 to ₹150,000 Average Expense = ₹50,000 to ₹120,000 per acre

Estimated Profit per acre of Banana Cultvation By Variety

Banana VarietyProfit per Acre (in INR)
Grand Naine2,00,000 – 2,50,000
Robusta1,80,000 – 2,20,000
Dwarf Cavendish1,50,000 – 1,80,000
Red Banana1,50,000 – 1,80,000
Poovan1,20,000 – 1,50,000
Nendran1,00,000 – 1,30,000