Chandra Mallika (chrysanthemum) flower farming and cultivation
Chandra Mallika, also known as chrysanthemum or simply “mum,” is a popular ornamental flower known for its bright and vibrant colors. It is commonly used for decoration and is also in high demand in the cut flower industry. Chrysanthemum, also known as Chandra Mallika in India, is a popular flower cultivated for its beautiful and vibrant blooms. It is widely grown for ornamental purposes, as well as for its medicinal properties. Here are some basic guidelines for farming and cultivating Chandra Mallika:
Climate and soil requirements: Chandra Mallika thrives in cool temperatures between 10-25°C, with optimum growth at 15-20°C. The plant prefers well-drained soil with a pH range of 6.0-7.0.
Propagation: Chandra Mallika can be propagated from seeds, cuttings or division of roots. Seeds can be sown directly in the soil, and it takes about 60-70 days for the plant to mature. Cuttings can be taken from the stem, and division of roots is a common method used in commercial production.
Planting: The best time for planting Chandra Mallika is during the cooler months, as they require a cool and moist environment during the early stages of growth. The plants should be planted in a sunny location with partial shade, and spaced at least 30 cm apart to allow for adequate growth.
Season : In India, Chrysanthemum is harvested from September to December, depending on the variety and growing conditions. The flowers are usually sold in local markets, as well as for export to other countries.
Spacing and Density : The recommended plant spacing for Chrysanthemum is 30 cm x 30 cm with a distance of 45 cm between rows. This means that 11,111 plants can be accommodated per acre.
Irrigation : Irrigation should be done at regular intervals to maintain optimum soil moisture levels. The frequency of irrigation depends on the prevailing weather conditions, but generally, Chrysanthemum requires irrigation every 3-4 days.
Pest and disease management: Chandra Mallika is susceptible to pests such as aphids and thrips, as well as fungal diseases like powdery mildew. Regular inspection and treatment with appropriate pesticides and fungicides can help prevent and control these issues.
Area of cultivation :In India, Chrysanthemum cultivation is mainly concentrated in the states of West Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana. The flower is grown both in open fields and in greenhouses, depending on the climatic conditions and availability of resources.
Pinching: Pinching is the process of removing the tip of the main stem to encourage lateral branching and compact growth. Pinching should be done when the plant has 4-6 pairs of leaves and should be repeated every 10-15 days until mid-July.
Disbudding: Disbudding is the process of removing the side buds to direct the plant’s energy towards the terminal bud, which will produce a larger flower. This should be done when the side buds are small and can be easily removed by hand.
Staking: Staking is necessary to support the weight of the plant and prevent it from falling over. This can be done using bamboo stakes or wire frames.
Pruning: Pruning is done to remove dead, diseased, or damaged plant parts and to maintain the plant’s shape and size. Prune the plant after each flowering cycle to promote new growth and increase the number of flowers produced.
Training: Training involves guiding the plant’s growth by tying the stems to the stakes or wire frames. This helps to prevent the stems from breaking and ensures that the plant grows in the desired direction.
Harvesting: Chrysanthemum flowers should be harvested when they are fully mature but before the petals start to drop. The best time to harvest is in the early morning when the flowers are cool and the stems are turgid. Use a sharp knife or scissors to cut the stem at a 45-degree angle, making sure to avoid damaging the leaves or flowers.
Sorting and grading: After harvesting, the flowers should be sorted and graded based on their size, color, and quality. Remove any damaged or diseased flowers and discard them. Sort the flowers into different grades based on their size and color.
Storage: Chrysanthemum flowers should be stored in a cool, dry place to prolong their shelf-life. Wrap the flowers in a moist paper towel and place them in a plastic bag. Store the bag in a refrigerator at a temperature of 1-2°C. Do not store Chrysanthemum flowers with fruits or vegetables as they produce ethylene gas which can cause premature aging.
Packaging and transport: Chrysanthemum flowers should be packed in sturdy boxes or crates to prevent damage during transport. Use a moist paper towel to wrap the flowers and place them in the box. Make sure to label the box with the grade, size, and color of the flowers.
Yield : On average, Chrysanthemum farmers in India can expect a yield of around 1.5 to 2.5 tons of flowers per acre. This may vary depending on climatic conditions, soil and the variety .
Area of cultivation : Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh.
Market information : Chrysanthemum flowers have a high demand in the Indian market, especially during festive seasons and for ornamental purposes. The demand is highest in major cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, and Hyderabad.
Varieties & Yield per acre
|Variety||Average yield per acre||Location|
|Punjab Gold||6,000 – 8,000||Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh|
|Pusa Jai||5,000 – 6,000||Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal|
|Pusa Shyam||4,000 – 5,000||Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana|
|Arka Naveen||7,000 – 9,000||Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra|
|Arka Swarna||6,000 – 7,000||Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu|
|Arka Anoop||5,000 – 6,000||Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh|
|Arka Uday||6,000 – 7,000||Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra|
|Arka Kusumakar||4,000 – 5,000||Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra|
- Land selection: Choose well-drained land that receives plenty of sunlight. The soil should be rich in organic matter and have a pH level between 6.0 to 7.5.
- Ploughing: The land is ploughed 3 to 4 times with a tractor or bullocks to a depth of 15-20 cm. This helps in breaking the soil clods and ensures uniform distribution of moisture.
- Leveling: The land is leveled to ensure uniform water distribution during irrigation. It also helps in reducing water wastage.
- Manure and Fertilizer application: Well-rotted farmyard manure or compost is applied to the soil at a rate of 25-30 tonnes per hectare. In addition, chemical fertilizers like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are applied in recommended doses.
- Irrigation: The land is irrigated after manure and fertilizer application to allow them to mix with the soil.
- Bed preparation: Raised beds of 1.5 m width and 15-20 cm height are prepared with a distance of 30 cm between the beds. This helps in better drainage and aeration.
- Mulching: Organic mulch like straw or hay is spread over the beds to control weeds, conserve moisture and improve soil fertility.
After land preparation, the next step in Chrysanthemum cultivation is planting. Here are the steps involved in planting:
- Planting time: Chrysanthemum is a short-day plant and requires a specific photoperiod for flowering. Planting is done during the months of May-June for early varieties and July-August for late varieties.
- Plant spacing: The recommended plant spacing is 30 cm x 30 cm, with a distance of 45 cm between rows.
- Transplanting: Seedlings of 45-60 days old are transplanted on the prepared beds. Care should be taken to avoid damage to the roots while transplanting.
- Watering: Immediately after transplanting, the plants are watered. After that, regular irrigation is done depending on the moisture level of the soil.
- Staking: Tall-growing varieties of Chrysanthemum require staking to support their growth. This is done by inserting bamboo sticks or metal rods into the soil, and tying the stems to them with soft twine.
- Pinching: Pinching is the process of removing the terminal bud of the plant to encourage lateral branching and more flower buds. It is done after the seedlings have established themselves in the field.
- Fertilizer application: Fertilizers like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are applied in recommended doses during the growing period.
By following these steps, Chrysanthemum plants can be successfully established in the field and can grow to produce healthy plants with good yield.
- Vegetables like tomato, brinjal, and chili pepper.
- Legumes like beans and peas.
- Cereals like maize and sorghum.
- Medicinal plants like ashwagandha and brahmi.
- Basal fertilization: Apply 25-30 tons of well-decomposed farmyard manure per acre before land preparation. This helps to improve soil fertility and provides a good source of organic matter.
- Pre-planting fertilization: Apply 40-50 kg of nitrogen (N), 40-50 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), and 40-50 kg of potassium (K2O) per acre as a basal dose before planting. This helps to provide the necessary nutrients for the initial growth of the plants.
- Topdressing: Apply 25-30 kg of nitrogen per acre as a topdressing after 30 days of planting. Repeat this application after
Pests & Diseases
|Aphids||Stunted growth, curling leaves, honeydew secretion||Insecticidal soap, neem oil, predatory insects like ladybugs|
|Spider Mites||Yellowing leaves, webbing on plant||Insecticidal soap, neem oil, predatory mites|
|Whiteflies||Yellowing leaves, sticky honeydew secretion||Insecticidal soap, neem oil, yellow sticky traps|
|Powdery Mildew||Powdery white coating on leaves||Prune affected leaves, improve air circulation, apply sulfur dust|
|Botrytis Blight||Brown spots on leaves and flowers, rotting tissue||Remove affected plant parts, improve air circulation, apply fungicides|
|Expenses||Cost (in Rs.)|
|Land preparation and planting||20,000|
|Fertilizers and pesticides||30,000|
|Irrigation and labor||50,000|
|Income||Earnings (in Rs.)|
|Yield of 1.5 ton of Chrysanthemum flowers||20 Rs per Kilo = Rs. 30,000|
|Profits||Earnings (in Rs.)|
|Profit per acre||(70,000) LOSS|
Loss : 70,000
Overall, Chandra Mallika flower cultivation requires careful attention to soil, climate, and watering conditions, as well as regular maintenance and pest management. With proper care, however, these bright and colorful flowers can provide a valuable source of income for farmers and producers.
States in india with Chrysanthemum Cultivation
- Maharashtra: The state of Maharashtra is one of the leading producers of chrysanthemum in India. Districts like Pune, Satara, and Kolhapur are known for their extensive chrysanthemum cultivation.
- Karnataka: Several districts in Karnataka, including Bengaluru, Chitradurga, and Tumakuru, have significant chrysanthemum cultivation areas.
- Tamil Nadu: The districts of Coimbatore, Nilgiris, and Madurai are known for their chrysanthemum cultivation and floriculture.
- Andhra Pradesh: In Andhra Pradesh, the districts of Chittoor, Krishna, and East Godavari have sizeable chrysanthemum cultivation areas.
- Telangana: The state of Telangana, particularly the districts of Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy, and Warangal, also cultivates chrysanthemum on a large scale.
- Gujarat: The districts of Vadodara, Anand, and Surat in Gujarat are also involved in chrysanthemum cultivation.
- West Bengal: The state of West Bengal, with districts like Nadia, Hooghly, and Bardhaman, is a significant chrysanthemum producer.
- Uttar Pradesh: Some regions in Uttar Pradesh, including Ghaziabad, Meerut, and Lucknow, also cultivate chrysanthemum for commercial purposes.
- Odisha: In Odisha, districts like Cuttack and Puri have areas dedicated to chrysanthemum cultivation.
- Haryana: The state of Haryana, particularly districts like Karnal and Kurukshetra, also participate in chrysanthemum cultivation.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) on Chrysanthemum Cultivation in India
Q: What are the major regions in India for chrysanthemum cultivation?
A: Chrysanthemum is cultivated in various regions across India. Some of the major states with significant chrysanthemum cultivation areas include Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Haryana.
Q: What type of climate is suitable for chrysanthemum cultivation?
A: Chrysanthemum thrives in a temperate climate with mild winters and moderate summers. It prefers temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C for optimal growth. Regions with well-distributed rainfall and low humidity are ideal for chrysanthemum cultivation.
Q: What type of soil is best for growing chrysanthemum flowers?
A: Chrysanthemum plants prefer well-draining and fertile soils. Sandy loam or loamy soils with good organic matter content are suitable for chrysanthemum cultivation. The soil should have a pH level between 6.0 to 7.0 for optimal growth.
Q: How is chrysanthemum propagated?
A: Chrysanthemum can be propagated through stem cuttings or seeds. Stem cuttings are the most common method and involve taking healthy cuttings from mature plants and rooting them in a suitable medium.
Q: What are the different varieties of chrysanthemum grown in India?
A: India cultivates various chrysanthemum varieties, including button chrysanthemums, daisy chrysanthemums, pompon chrysanthemums, and spider chrysanthemums. Each variety comes in different colors, shapes, and sizes.
Q: How often should chrysanthemum plants be watered?
A: Chrysanthemum plants require regular and consistent watering. They should be watered whenever the top layer of soil feels dry to the touch. Avoid overwatering, as it may lead to root rot.
Q: Are chrysanthemum plants prone to pests and diseases?
A: Yes, chrysanthemum plants can be susceptible to pests like aphids, whiteflies, and thrips. Diseases like powdery mildew and leaf spot can also affect the plants. Regular monitoring and timely application of suitable pesticides can help manage these issues.
Q: When is the best time to plant chrysanthemum cuttings?
A: Chrysanthemum cuttings are typically planted during the monsoon season or at the beginning of the winter season. This allows the plants to establish their roots before the flowering season.
Q: How are chrysanthemum flowers used in India?
A: Chrysanthemum flowers are widely used for decorative purposes in India. They are used in floral arrangements, bouquets, garlands, and as offerings in religious ceremonies and festivals.
Q: What are some essential care tips for healthy chrysanthemum plants?
A: To ensure healthy chrysanthemum plants, provide adequate sunlight, water, and well-draining soil. Regularly pinch off dead blooms and discolored leaves to promote new flower growth. Fertilize the plants with balanced nutrients to support vigorous growth.