Jasmine cultivation – Profits per acre, Caveats and more
- There are 50 types of Jasmines out of which 3 of them are commercially cultivated
- Madurai Malli / Gundumalli
- Jathi Malli / Pitchi
- Mullai and Gundumalli are cultivated for fresh flowers
- Jathi Malli is used for extraction to produce perfume concrete
Areas of Production
Tamil Nadu is the largest Produce of flowers, cut or loose. From Roses to JAsmine and a wide range of flowers, Tamil Nadu produces nearly 50% of all flower production in India. Regarding jasmine cultivation, Tamil Nadu is one of the highest producers and one of the largest consumers of flowers. Fresh flowers are used in garlands, Wedding decorations, and a lot more. Apart from these, the Extraction of Jasmine concrete for perfume is also gaining speed. In Madurai alone, over 500 farmers are indulged in jasmine cultivation. Most farmers are small with a land holding of not more than 2 acres. The venture is profitable for these farmers as labor is from the family and no external labor is required most of the time, reducing the cost of cultivation.
- Tamil Nadu is the #1 Produce of Jasmine in India
- Jasmine is exported to Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, and the middle east
- Jasmine is cultivated in Coimbatore Salem Trichy, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Dindigul, and Virudunagar in Tamil Nadu
- In Karnataka, Bangalore, Mysore, Bellary, and Kolar are the major cultivators of Jasmine
- Udaipur, Jaipur Ajmer, and Kot are Jasmine Growing areas in Rajasthan
- Ranaghat, Kolaghat, and Panskura are areas in Westbengal where jasmine is grown
- Maharashtra and parts of Andhra Pradesh also have jasmine cultivation
The highest producers of Jasmine are small farmers with less than 2 acres of land
Due to high manpower requirements especially during harvest its not feasible for large farmers
Soil Conditions and Land preparation For cultivation of Jasmine
- Grows in a wide range of soil
- Soil PH Between 6.5 and 7.5 is ideal
- Tropical and sub-tropical conditions are best for jasmine cultivation.
- Jasmine grows to an altitude of 1200 Meters where rainfall is between 800 to 1000mm
- Good drainage is required.
- Adding organic material to soil increases yield
- 2-3 Ploughing and leveling before planting saplings helps reduce weeds
- Pits are 30 centimeter by 30 Centimeter by 30 centiemeter
- Spacing of 1.5 X1.5 meters is ideal
- June – November (onset of monsoon) is best season for planting jasmine
- 10-12 KG of FYM or Compost can be added to the pit before planting
- 120 Gm Phosphoros, Potassium, and 60 Grams of Nitrogen should be added in 2 splits per year per plant
- One acre holds 2000-3000 Plants
- First irrigation should be done immediately after planting.
- Subsequent irrigation every 5-10 days depending on the weather.
- Proper drainage during Rainy seasons is essential
Weeding , Training, and Pruning
- Weeding to be done 2-3 weeks after plantation
- Subsequent weeding every other month
- training to be practiced to give the plant the desired shape
- Pruning improves yield due to increased branching.
- Annual pruning to remove all dead and non-productive parts of the plant is mandatory
- The best time to prune is by the end of November
- Propagation is done through Layering and Cutting.
- The layering method takes 100-120 days for rooting
- Semi Hardwood cuttings are easier to propagate compared to layering
- 20-25 cm semi-hardwood with 2-3 nodes is used for cutting.
- cuttings are planted in nurseries for 5 months before planting
- Flowers are picked when they are in the bud stage and ready to bloom
- For long-distance transportation, it preferred to pick up the flowers early in the morning
- Flowers are usually ready 6 months from planting
- Afternoon picking is not recommended as it reduces the shelf life of flowers
- Flowers for concrete production are picked when they are in bloom
- Jasmine starts flowering from the sixth month of planting.
- Economic yield can be obtained in the second or sometimes a third year.
- Crops last for 15 years and are economical till then
- Yield reduces from 15th year onwards and is not economically viable
Yield per acre By year
- 1st Year: 800 KG
- 2nd Year: 1600 KG
- 3rd Year: 2600 KG
- 4th year Onwards: 3600KG
Yield varies depending on the variety of jasmine.
While the yield may be attractive there is a catch to the entire process. Jasmine cultivation is not a one-year or 2-year crop. It’s a 15-year crop. The expenses for the first year and sometimes the second year to are high in terms of maintenance, with little to no revenue during these 2 initial years. Profit only starts coming in the third year. The establishment cost is high and most farmers are not willing to go without revenue for 2 years. Also because jasmine farming is labor-intensive, especially during the harvest period, Not many farmers are willing to cultivate jasmine when they can find an alternative.
Off-season production by inducing flowering from October to February is possible with a few changes to patterns in manuring and fertilizing of the plants apart from pruning.
Profit and Yield per acre of Jasmine Farming
- Land preparation: 25000
- Planting material : 1,08,900
- Irrigation: 50000
- Fertilizers: 50000
- Pesticides and insecticides: 15000
- Farm Yard manure: 15000
- Weeding: 30000
- Picking: 80,000
Total Yield Second year: 1600 kg
- Price Per Kg: 200
- Total Revenue : 320,000
- Total Expenses by Second Year: 373900
- Total Loss: 53000
Total Yield Third Year: 2600 kg
- Price Per KG: 200
- Total Revenue : 5,20,000
- Additional Expenses during the second year: 190,000
- Total Profit from the second year: 2,77,000
Total Yield Fourth Year: 2600 KG (goes up to 3600 KG)
- Price Per KG 200
- Total Revenue: 520000
- Expenses from third year onwards: 190000
- Total Profit : 3,30,000
Price influence :
- Price is influenced not just by quality but also by location
- Prices are higher in areas where there is limited jasmine cultivation
- Time also influences the price
- Prices also vary depending on the end-use. Concrete vs fresh flower